Warfare against them by the English colonists and native allies completed their extinction as a tribe soon after the turn of the 19th century.The word "Timucuan" may derive from "Thimogona" or "Tymangoua", an exonym used by the Saturiwa chiefdom of present-day Jacksonville for their enemies, the Utina, who lived inland along the St. Both groups spoke dialects of the Timucua language.The name "Timucua" (recorded by the French as Thimogona) came from the exonym used by the Saturiwa (of what is now Jacksonville) to refer to the Utina, another group to the west of the St. The Spanish came to use the term more broadly for other peoples in the area.Eventually it became the common term for all peoples who spoke what is known as Timucuan.
In 1703 the British with the Creek, Catawba, and Yuchi began killing and enslaving hundreds of the Timucua.Johns and Suwannee Rivers (roughly the area of the group known as the Northern Utina) as the Timucua Province, which they incorporated into the mission system.The dialect spoken in that province became known as "Timucua" (now usually known as "Timucua proper").The Timucua history changed after the Spanish established St.Augustine in 1565 as the capital of their province of Florida.
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By 1595, their population was estimated to have been reduced from 200,000 to 50,000 and thirteen chiefdoms remained.